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Assignment Referencing A Book


A book

In-text:           (Sternberg, 1993) 

Multiple works by the same author in the same year are distinguished by adding a letter to the date. For example (Priest, 1990a) (Priest, 1990b).


Reference:     Sternberg, R. J. (1993). The psychologist's companion (2nd ed.). Cambridge UK:
                                    Cambridge University Press.

 Multiple works by the same author in the same year are distinguished by adding a letter to the date. For example (Priest, 1990a) (Priest, 1990b).

A book with two authors

In-text:             (Smith & Jones, 1948, pp. 45-46)

Reference:      Smith, F. J., & Jones, E. (1948). A scheme of qualitative organic analysis. 
                                     London: Blackie.


A book with three to five authors

In-text:            (Fischer, Demetriou, & Dawson, 1992, Chapter 3)

If citing for the second time list the first author et al., and then the year eg. (Fischer et al., 1992)

Reference:     Fischer, K., Demetriou, A., & Dawson, T. L. (1992). The development of mental processing: efficiency,working memory and thinking.

                         Boston, MA: Blackwell Publishing.


A book with six or seven authors

For works with six or more authors cite the first author only followed by et al. within the text, however include all authors in the reference list entry.

In-text:             (Jones et al., 1992, p. 102)

Reference:    Jones, K. K., Peters, F., Ho, L., Wang, W., Reddy, F.P., & Smyth, R. (1992). Advances  in mental processing: Memory and thinking. Sydney,                                 NSW: Apex.

In the reference list single authors go before multiple authors, for example:

Fischer, K. W., (1992, p. 7)... before Fischer, K., Demetriou, A., & Dawson, T. L. (1992, p. 89)....

For books with eight or more authors
For books with eight or more authors cite the first six authors followed by an ellipsis and then the final author in the reference list entry.

*Rule is also applicable for journal articles with more than seven authors (see p. 198 of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual 2010)

In text: (Midgley et al., 2000).

Reference: Midgley, C., Maehr, M. L., Hruda, L., Anderman, E. M., Freeman, K. E., Gheen, M., ... Urdan, T. (2000). Manual for the patterns of adaptive learning scales (PALS). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.


Ebooks or Electronic Books

If a DOI (Digital object identifier) is available use the DOI, otherwise state 'Availalbe from' and use the URL of the home page of the book or report.


Electronic version of a print book

In-text:              (Furlong,Gilman, & Huebner, 2009, p. 7)

Reference:      Furlong, M., Gilman, R., & Huebner, S. (2009). Handbook of positive psychology. [Electronic edition].

                                      Avialalbe from http://www.utas.eblib.com.au.ezproxy.utas.edu.au/EBLWeb/patron/

In-text:              (Schiraldi, 2001)

Reference:       Schiraldi, G.R. (2001).  The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook:  A guide to healing, recovery, and growth

                              [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0071393722

Electronic-only book

In-text:              (O'Keefe, E. n.d., p. 7)

Reference:       O'Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Available from http://www.onlineoriginlas.com/showitem.asp?itemID=135


Edited book

In-text:              (Hartman, 1994)

The editor's name occupies the author position for the in-text citation.

References:    Hartman, G. H. E. (Ed.). (1994). Holocaust remembrance: The shapes of memory. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.


Chapter in an edited or non-edited collection

In-text:                (Bjork, 1989)

References:      Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger & F.I.M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory and consciousness (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

For a non-edited collection just include the word ‘In' prior to the book title.

Information for:

  • authors in In-text references taken from American Psychological Association Publication Manual (2010, p. 177).
  • references for books taken from American Psychological Association Publication Manual (2010, pp. 202-205).

*For more examples refer to pp. 647-687 in Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Ed., 2003.

In general, the notes are presented with the following format and punctuation:


  • note number
  • author's initials or given name and last name,
  • title,
  • edition, if not the first.,
  • (place of publication : publisher, date),
  • volume number (if applicable):
  • actual page numbers you are referring to.


1 Xia Li and Nancy B. Crane, Electronic Styles :  A Handbook for Citing Electronic Information, 2nd ed. (Medford, N.J.: Information Today, Inc., 1996), 245.

If you are using other than the set edition of a primary text, give as much detail as practical to help the reader locate the passage. 

For novels, give the chapter as well as the page reference.

For a play, cite the act, scene and line numbers: for example, II, iii, 32-44.


Edited book:

4 Ori Z Soltes, ed., Georgia : Art and Cililization through the Ages (London : Philip Wilson, 1999), 280. 


Book with more than one volume

4 H.M. Green, A History of Australian Literature : Pure and Applied (Sydney : Angus & Robertson, 1961), 2:1097.


Second or later edition

A new edition of a work usually entails substantial revision of the text or resetting of the type, while a reprint or impression entails only minor changes.

5 John N. Hazard, The Soviet System of Government, 5th ed. (Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1980), 25.

*If the information is provided, include the publication details of the original edition prior to this edition's publication details.

6 Ernest Gowers, The Complete Plain Words, 3rd Ed. (London: H.M Stationery Office, 1986; Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1987), 26. Citations are to the Penguin edition.


Chapter in edited book

7 John Holloway, "Dickens and the Symbol," in Dickens 1970, ed. Michael Slater, 53 (London : Chapman Hall, 1970).

*According to pages 662-663 of the source text, page numbers for chapters in an edited book are placed before the publication details, rather than after.


Quotation found in a secondary source

8 Samuel Johnson, 20 March 1776, quoted in James Boswell, The Life of Samuel Johnson, eds. George Birkbeck Hill & L.F. Powell  (Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1934), 2:450.

9 Louis Zukofsky, "Sincerity and Objectification," Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

*To cite from a secondary source is generally discouraged although sometimes necessary.


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